2016 Vol. 7, No. 2

Shisan C. Chen and his research on goldfish genetics
Lei Fu
2016, 7(2): 79-80. doi: 10.1007/s13238-015-0236-3
Regulation of developmental and environmental signaling by interaction between microtubules and membranes in plant cells
Qun Zhang, Wenhua Zhang
2016, 7(2): 81-88. doi: 10.1007/s13238-015-0233-6
Cell division and expansion require the ordered arrangement of microtubules, which are subject to spatial and temporal modifications by developmental and environmental factors. Understanding how signals translate to changes in cortical microtubule organization is of fundamental importance. A defining feature of the cortical microtubule array is its association with the plasma membrane; modules of the plasma membrane are thought to play important roles in the mediation of microtubule organization. In this review, we highlight advances in research on the regulation of cortical microtubule organization by membrane-associated and membrane-tethered proteins and lipids in response to phytohormones and stress. The transmembrane kinase receptor Rho-like guanosine triphosphatase, phospholipase D, phosphatidic acid, and phosphoinositides are discussed with a focus on their roles in microtubule organization.
The roles of ncRNAs and histone-modifiers in regulating breast cancer stem cells
Zhiju Zhao, Shu Li, Erwei Song, Suling Liu
2016, 7(2): 89-99. doi: 10.1007/s13238-015-0199-4
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of cancer cells with ability of initiating tumorigenesis, exist in many kinds of tumors including breast cancer. Cancer stem cells contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. Conventional treatments only kill differentiated cancer cells, but spare CSCs. Combining conventional treatments with therapeutic drugs targeting to CSCs will eradicate cancer cells more efficiently. Studying the molecular mechanisms of CSCs regulation is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies. Growing evidences showed CSCs are regulated by non-coding RNA (ncRNA) including microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and histone-modifiers, such as let-7, miR-93, miR-100, HOTAIR, Bmi-1 and EZH2. Herein we review the roles of microRNAs, lncRNAs and histonemodifiers especially Polycomb family proteins in regulating breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs).
Biogenesis and regulation of the let-7 miRNAs and their functional implications
Hosuk Lee, Sungwook Han, Chang Seob Kwon, Daeyoup Lee
2016, 7(2): 100-113. doi: 10.1007/s13238-015-0212-y
The let-7 miRNAwas one of thefirst miRNAs discovered in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and its biological functions show a high level of evolutionary conservation from the nematode to the human. Unlike in C. elegans, higher animals have multiple isoforms of let-7 miRNAs; these isoforms share a consensus sequence called the ‘seed sequence’ and these isoforms are categorized into let-7 miRNA family. The expression of let-7 family is required for developmental timing and tumor suppressor function, but must be suppressed for the self-renewal of stem cells. Therefore, let-7 miRNA biogenesis must be carefully controlled. To generate a let-7 miRNA, a primary transcript is produced by RNA polymerase Ⅱ and then subsequently processed by Drosha/DGCR8, TUTase, and Dicer. Because dysregulation of let-7 processing is deleterious, biogenesis of let-7 is tightly regulated by cellular factors, such as the RNA binding proteins, LIN28A/B and DIS3L2. In this review, we discuss the biological functions and biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs, focusing on the molecular mechanisms of regulation of let-7 biogenesis in vertebrates, such as the mouse and the human.
Research articles
Parkin promotes proteasomal degradation of p62: implication of selective vulnerability of neuronal cells in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease
Pingping Song, Shanshan Li, Hao Wu, Ruize Gao, Guanhua Rao, Dongmei Wang, Ziheng Chen, Biao Ma, Hongxia Wang, Nan Sui, Haiteng Deng, Zhuohua Zhang, Tieshan Tang, Zheng Tan, Zehan Han, Tieyuan Lu, Yushan Zhu, Quan Chen
2016, 7(2): 114-129. doi: 10.1007/s13238-015-0230-9
Mutations or inactivation of parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, are associated with familial form or sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), respectively, which manifested with the selective vulnerability of neuronal cells in substantia nigra (SN) and striatum (STR) regions. However, the underlying molecular mechanism linking parkin with the etiology of PD remains elusive. Here we report that p62, a critical regulator for protein quality control, inclusion body formation, selective autophagy and diverse signaling pathways, is a new substrate of parkin. P62 levels were increased in the SN and STR regions, but not in other brain regions in parkin knockout mice. Parkin directly interacts with and ubiquitinates p62 at the K13 to promote proteasomal degradation of p62 even in the absence of ATG5. Pathogenic mutations, knockdown of parkin or mutation of p62 at K13 prevented the degradation of p62. We further showed that parkin deficiency mice have pronounced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons and have worse performance in motor test when treated with 6-hydroxydopamine hydrochloride in aged mice. These results suggest that, in addition to their critical role in regulating autophagy, p62 are subjected to parkin mediated proteasomal degradation and implicate that the dysregulation of parkin/p62 axis may involve in the selective vulnerability of neuronal cells during the onset of PD pathogenesis.
G-CSF is a key modulator of MDSC and could be a potential therapeutic target in colitisassociated colorectal cancers
Wenbin Li, Xinghua Zhang, Yongkang Chen, Yibin Xie, Jiancheng Liu, Qiang Feng, Yi Wang, Wei Yuan, Jie Ma
2016, 7(2): 130-140. doi: 10.1007/s13238-015-0237-2
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is an essential regulator of neutrophil trafficking and is highly expressed in multiple tumors. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) promote neoplastic progression through multiple mechanisms by immune suppression. Despite the findings of G-CSF function in colon cancer progression, the precise mechanism of G-CSF on MDSCs regulation and its blockade effects on tumor growth remains a worthy area of investigation. In this study we observed an overexpression of G-CSF in a mouse colitis-associated cancer (CAC) model, which was consistent with the accumulation of MDSCs in mouse colon tissues. Further in vitro studies demonstrated that G-CSF could promote MDSCs survival and activation through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. Moreover, compared with isotype control, anti-G-CSF mAb treatment demonstrated reduced MDSC accumulation, which led to a marked decrease in neoplasm size and number in mice. Our results indicated that G-CSF is a critical regulating molecule in the migration, proliferation and function maintenance of MDSCs, which could be a potential therapeutic target for colitis-associated cancer.
Onco-miR-24 regulates cell growth and apoptosis by targeting BCL2L11 in gastric cancer
Haiyang Zhang, Jingjing Duan, Yanjun Qu, Ting Deng, Rui Liu, Le Zhang, Ming Bai, Jialu Li, Tao Ning, Shaohua Ge, Xia Wang, Zhenzhen Wang, Qian Fan, Hongli Li, Guoguang Ying, Dingzhi Huang, Yi Ba
2016, 7(2): 141-151. doi: 10.1007/s13238-015-0234-5
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide; however, the molecular mechanism in tumorigenesis still needs exploration. BCL2L11 belongs to the BCL-2 family, and acts as a central regulator of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade and mediates cell apoptosis. Although miRNAs have been reported to be involved in each stage of cancer development, the role of miR-24 in GC has not been reported yet. In the present study, miR-24 was found to be up-regulated while the expression of BCL2L11 was inhibited in tumor tissues of GC. Studies from both in vitro and in vivo shown that miR-24 regulates BCL2L11 expression by directly binding with 3'UTR of mRNA, thus promoting cell growth, migration while inhibiting cell apoptosis. Therefore, miR-24 is a novel onco-miRNA that can be potential drug targets for future clinical use.
Highly efficient generation of biallelic reporter gene knock-in mice via CRISPR-mediated genome editing of ESCs
Yanliang Wang, Junhong Li, Jinzhu Xiang, Bingqiang Wen, Haiyuan Mu, Wei Zhang, Jianyong Han
2016, 7(2): 152-156. doi: 10.1007/s13238-015-0228-3