2018 Vol. 9, No. 11

It’s well accepted that the secondary structures of HCV RNAand the cellular proteins that bind to them modulate bothtranslation and RNA replication together. In this paper, weidentified RNA binding motif protein 24 (RBM24) as a novelhost factor participated in HCV life cycle which binds to the5′ and 3′ UTRs in the HCV genome, and may function at theswitch from translation to replication as silencing of RBM24stimulated the initial translation of HCV proteins but inhibitedand delayed replication of HCV genome. Mechanically,RBM24 could interrupt the assembly of the 80S ribosome onthe HCV IRES and enhance the interaction between the 5′and 3′ UTRs in the HCV genome.
Mini-biography for Mr. Xitao Cai: the pioneer botanist of the plant kingdom
Gaibian Wang, Quanxing Zhang, Yongping Yang
2018, 9(11): 905-908. doi: 10.1007/s13238-018-0564-1
Molecular guidance cues in the development of visual pathway
Yupu Diao, Yuqing Chen, Peijun Zhang, Liyuan Cui, Jiayi Zhang
2018, 9(11): 909-929. doi: 10.1007/s13238-017-0490-7
70%-80% of our sensory input comes from vision. Light hit the retina at the back of our eyes and the visual information is relayed into the dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei (dLGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) thereafter, constituting the image-forming visual circuit. Molecular cues are one of the key factors to guide the wiring and refinement of the image-forming visual circuit during pre-and post-embryonic stages. Distinct molecular cues are involved in different developmental stages and nucleus, suggesting diverse guidance mechanisms. In this review, we summarize molecular guidance cues throughout the image-forming visual circuit, including chiasm determination, eye-specific segregation and refinement in the dLGN, and at last the reciprocal connections between the dLGN and V1.
Research articles
RNA binding protein 24 regulates the translation and replication of hepatitis C virus
Huang Cao, Kaitao Zhao, Yongxuan Yao, Jing Guo, Xiaoxiao Gao, Qi Yang, Min Guo, Wandi Zhu, Yun Wang, Chunchen Wu, Jizheng Chen, Yuan Zhou, Xue Hu, Mengji Lu, Xinwen Chen, Rongjuan Pei
2018, 9(11): 930-944. doi: 10.1007/s13238-018-0507-x
The secondary structures of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and the cellular proteins that bind to them are important for modulating both translation and RNA replication. However, the sets of RNA-binding proteins involved in the regulation of HCV translation, replication and encapsidation remain unknown. Here, we identified RNA binding motif protein 24 (RBM24) as a host factor participated in HCV translation and replication. Knockdown of RBM24 reduced HCV propagation in Huh7.5.1 cells. An enhanced translation and delayed RNA synthesis during the early phase of infection was observed in RBM24 silencing cells. However, both overexpression of RBM24 and recombinant human RBM24 protein suppressed HCV IRES-mediated translation. Further analysis revealed that the assembly of the 80S ribosome on the HCV IRES was interrupted by RBM24 protein through binding to the 5'-UTR. RBM24 could also interact with HCV Core and enhance the interaction of Core and 5'-UTR, which suppresses the expression of HCV. Moreover, RBM24 enhanced the interaction between the 5'-and 3'-UTRs in the HCV genome, which probably explained its requirement in HCV genome replication. Therefore, RBM24 is a novel host factor involved in HCV replication and may function at the switch from translation to replication.
CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout reveals a guardian role of NF-κB/RelA in maintaining the homeostasis of human vascular cells
Ping Wang, Zunpeng Liu, Xiaoqian Zhang, Jingyi Li, Liang Sun, Zhenyu Ju, Jian Li, Piu Chan, Guang-Hui Liu, Weiqi Zhang, Moshi Song, Jing Qu
2018, 9(11): 945-965. doi: 10.1007/s13238-018-0560-5
Vascular cell functionality is critical to blood vessel homeostasis. Constitutive NF-κB activation in vascular cells results in chronic vascular inflammation, leading to various cardiovascular diseases. However, how NF-κB regulates human blood vessel homeostasis remains largely elusive. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing, we generated RelA knockout human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and differentiated them into various vascular cell derivatives to study how NF-κB modulates human vascular cells under basal and inflammatory conditions. Multi-dimensional phenotypic assessments and transcriptomic analyses revealed that RelA deficiency affected vascular cells via modulating inflammation, survival, vasculogenesis, cell differentiation and extracellular matrix organization in a cell typespecific manner under basal condition, and that RelA protected vascular cells against apoptosis and modulated vascular inflammatory response upon tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) stimulation. Lastly, further evaluation of gene expression patterns in IκBα knockout vascular cells demonstrated that IκBα acted largely independent of RelA signaling. Taken together, our data reveal a protective role of NF-κB/RelA in modulating human blood vessel homeostasis and map the human vascular transcriptomic landscapes for the discovery of novel therapeutic targets.
GCN2 deficiency protects mice from denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy via inhibiting FoxO3a nuclear translocation
Yuting Guo, Huiwen Wang, Yinglong Tang, Yue Wang, Mengqi Zhang, Zhiguang Yang, Eric Nyirimigabo, Bin Wei, Zhongbing Lu, Guangju Ji
2018, 9(11): 966-970. doi: 10.1007/s13238-018-0504-0
Discovery of the first macrolide antibiotic binding protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a new antibiotic resistance drug target
Qingqing Zhang, Huijuan Liu, Xiang Liu, Dunquan Jiang, Bingjie Zhang, Hongliang Tian, Cheng Yang, Luke W. Guddat, Haitao Yang, Kaixia Mi, Zihe Rao
2018, 9(11): 971-975. doi: 10.1007/s13238-017-0502-7
BMAL1 functions as a cAMP-responsive coactivator of HDAC5 to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis
Jian Li, Sihan Lv, Xinchen Qiu, Jiamin Yu, Junkun Jiang, Yalan Jin, Wenxuan Guo, Ruowei Zhao, Zhen-Ning Zhang, Chao Zhang, Bing Luan
2018, 9(11): 976-980. doi: 10.1007/s13238-018-0514-y
Correction to: The key role of CYC2 during meiosis in Tetrahymena Thermophila
Qianlan Xu, Ruoyu Wang, A. R. Ghanam, Guanxiong Yan, Wei Miao, Xiaoyuan Song
2018, 9(11): 981-981. doi: 10.1007/s13238-018-0562-3