2020 Vol. 11, No. 4

Washing is an independent contributor to reducing adverseevents related to microbiota transplantation. The core ofwashed microbiota transplantation (WMT) is “washing”.Intraperitoneal injection of washed microbiota supernatantin mice, as an amplifier for toxic reaction, is a novel way toevaluate the quality of washing. Changjiang (Yangtze) Riveris known as Rivers of Life. With plenty of fish growing uphealthily in the river, we know that such clean water is whathumans need. Whether doctors, technicians, or patients,everyone wishes to move from manual preparation of FMT tothe era of WMT. This is as important as the need for clean andsafe water in the Changjiang River.
Just for Chinese people’s stood up—Prof. Fangzhou Gu, father of “sugar pills”
Jun Wu, Dexiang Dong, Ying Li
2020, 11(4): 231-234. doi: 10.1007/s13238-019-00669-7
Puzzle of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (2019-nCoV)
Jing Li, Wenjun Liu
2020, 11(4): 235-238. doi: 10.1007/s13238-020-00693-y
Lifting the veil on the keratinocyte contribution to cutaneous nociception
Matthieu Talagas, Nicolas Lebonvallet, François Berthod, Laurent Misery
2020, 11(4): 239-250. doi: 10.1007/s13238-019-00683-9
Cutaneous nociception is essential to prevent individuals from sustaining injuries. According to the conventional point of view, the responses to noxious stimuli are thought to be exclusively initiated by sensory neurons, whose activity would be at most modulated by keratinocytes. However recent studies have demonstrated that epidermal keratinocytes can also act as primary nociceptive transducers as a supplement to sensory neurons. To enlighten our understanding of cutaneous nociception, this review highlights recent and relevant findings on the cellular and molecular elements that underlie the contribution of epidermal keratinocytes as nociceptive modulators and noxious sensors, both under healthy and pathological conditions.
Research articles
Washed microbiota transplantation vs. manual fecal microbiota transplantation: clinical findings, animal studies and in vitro screening
Ting Zhang, Gaochen Lu, Zhe Zhao, Yafei Liu, Quan Shen, Pan Li, Yaoyao Chen, Haoran Yin, Huiquan Wang, Cicilia Marcella, Bota Cui, Lei Cheng, Guozhong Ji, Faming Zhang
2020, 11(4): 251-266. doi: 10.1007/s13238-019-00684-8
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) by manual preparation has been applied to treat diseases for thousands of years. However, this method still endures safety risks and challenges the psychological endurance and acceptance of doctors, patients and donors. Population evidence showed the washed microbiota preparation with microfiltration based on an automatic purification system followed by repeated centrifugation plus suspension for three times significantly reduced FMT-related adverse events. This washing preparation makes delivering a precise dose of the enriched microbiota feasible, instead of using the weight of stool. Intraperitoneal injection in mice with the fecal microbiota supernatant obtained after repeated centrifugation plus suspension for three times induced less toxic reaction than that by the first centrifugation following the microfiltration. The toxic reactions that include death, the change in the level of peripheral white blood cells, and the proliferation of germinal center in secondary lymphoid follicles in spleen were noted. The metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS) indicated the increasing types and amount of viruses could be washed out during the washing process. Metabolomics analysis indicated metabolites with pro-inflammatory effects in the fecal microbiota supernatant such as leukotriene B4, corticosterone, and prostaglandin G2 could be removed by repeated washing. Near-infrared absorption spectroscopy could be served as a rapid detection method to control the quality of the washingprocess. In conclusion, this study for the first time provides evidence linking clinical findings and animal experiments to support that washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) is safer, more precise and more quality-controllable than the crude FMT by manual.
Electric field-driven building blocks for introducing multiple gradients to hydrogels
Gang Xu, Zhaozhao Ding, Qiang Lu, Xiaoyi Zhang, Xiaozhong Zhou, Liying Xiao, Guozhong Lu, David L Kaplan
2020, 11(4): 267-285. doi: 10.1007/s13238-020-00692-z
Gradient biomaterials are considered as preferable matrices for tissue engineering due to better simulation of native tissues. The introduction of gradient cues usually needs special equipment and complex process but is only effective to limited biomaterials. Incorporation of multiple gradients in the hydrogels remains challenges. Here, betasheet rich silk nanofibers (BSNF) were used as building blocks to introduce multiple gradients into different hydrogel systems through the joint action of crosslinking and electric field. The blocks migrated to the anode along the electric field and gradually stagnated due to the solution-hydrogel transition of the systems, finally achieving gradient distribution of the blocks in the formed hydrogels. The gradient distribution of the blocks could be tuned easily through changing different factors such as solution viscosity, which resulted in highly tunable gradient of mechanical cues. The blocks were also aligned under the electric field, endowing orientation gradient simultaneously. Different cargos could be loaded on the blocks and form gradient cues through the same crosslinking-electric field strategy. The building blocks could be introduced to various hydrogels such as Gelatin and NIPAM, indicating the universality. Complex niches with multiple gradient cues could be achieved through the strategy. Silk-based hydrogels with suitable mechanical gradients were fabricated to control the osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Chondrogenic-osteogenic gradient transition was obtained, which stimulated the ectopic osteochondral tissue regeneration in vivo. The versatility and highly controllability of the strategy as well as multifunction of the building blocks reveal the applicability in complex tissue engineering and various interfacial tissues.
LHX6 is essential for the migration of human pluripotent stem cell-derived GABAergic interneurons
Fang Yuan, Kai-Heng Fang, Yuan Hong, Shi-Bo Xu, Min Xu, Yufeng Pan, Yan Liu
2020, 11(4): 286-291. doi: 10.1007/s13238-019-00686-6
Frequent RNF43 mutation contributes to moderate activation of Wnt signaling in colorectal signet-ring cell carcinoma
Yaqi Li, Jian Li, Renjie Wang, Long Zhang, Guoxiang Fu, Xueying Wang, Yebin Wang, Chuantao Fang, Dandan Zhang, Duo Du, Xiaoji Ma, Mengxue Pan, Qiang Guo, Xiaoya Xu, Xiang Hu, Yi Zhou, Shaobo Mo, Huijun Wang, Jianjun Gao, Shenglin Huang, Yun Liu, Sanjun Cai, Guoqiang Hua, Junjie Peng, Fa-Xing Yu
2020, 11(4): 292-298. doi: 10.1007/s13238-020-00691-0
Cell-cell contact-induced gene editing/ activation in mammalian cells using a synNotch-CRISPR/Cas9 system
Hongxin Huang, Xin Zhang, Jie Lv, Hongcheng Yang, Xinlong Wang, Shufeng Ma, Ruoyang Shao, Xin Peng, Ying Lin, Zhili Rong
2020, 11(4): 299-303. doi: 10.1007/s13238-020-00690-1
Binding to m6A RNA promotes YTHDF2-mediated phase separation
Jiahua Wang, Liyong Wang, Jianbo Diao, Yujiang Geno Shi, Yang Shi, Honghui Ma, Hongjie Shen
2020, 11(4): 304-307. doi: 10.1007/s13238-019-00660-2