2022 Vol. 13, No. 6

Aging reduced the pathogenicity of Th17 cells and ameliorated experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice as shown in this blue disc. In young mice with experimental autoimmune uveitis, Th17 cells with strong pathogenicity led to severe vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels), diffuse chorioretinal lesions, and massive inflammatory exudation in the fundus. On the contrary, in old mice with experimental autoimmune uveitis, Th17 cells with weakened pathogenicity only led to small and focal chorioretinal lesions, minimal vasculitis, and mild inflammatory exudation.

Te-Pei Feng: a pioneer of neuromuscular physiology in China
Wei Xie, Ben-Yu Guo, Yanyan Qian
2022, 13(6): 387-393. doi: 10.1007/s13238-021-00850-x
The hypothalamus for whole-body physiology: from metabolism to aging
Tiemin Liu, Yong Xu, Chun-Xia Yi, Qingchun Tong, Dongsheng Cai
2022, 13(6): 394-421. doi: 10.1007/s13238-021-00834-x
Obesity and aging are two important epidemic factors for metabolic syndrome and many other health issues, which contribute to devastating diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke and cancers. The brain plays a central role in controlling metabolic physiology in that it integrates information from other metabolic organs, sends regulatory projections and orchestrates the whole-body function. Emerging studies suggest that brain dysfunction in sensing various internal cues or processing external cues may have profound effects on metabolic and other physiological functions. This review highlights brain dysfunction linked to genetic mutations, sex, brain inflammation, microbiota, stress as causes for whole-body pathophysiology, arguing brain dysfunction as a root cause for the epidemic of aging and obesity-related disorders. We also speculate key issues that need to be addressed on how to reveal relevant brain dysfunction that underlines the development of these disorders and diseases in order to develop new treatment strategies against these health problems.
Research Article
Aging weakens Th17 cell pathogenicity and ameliorates experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice
He Li, Lei Zhu, Rong Wang, Lihui Xie, Jie Ren, Shuai Ma, Weiqi Zhang, Xiuxing Liu, Zhaohao Huang, Binyao Chen, Zhaohuai Li, Huyi Feng, Guang-Hui Liu, Si Wang, Jing Qu, Wenru Su
2022, 13(6): 422-445. doi: 10.1007/s13238-021-00882-3
Aging-induced changes in the immune system are associated with a higher incidence of infection and vaccination failure. Lymph nodes, which filter the lymph to identify and fight infections, play a central role in this process. However, careful characterization of the impact of aging on lymph nodes and associated autoimmune diseases is lacking. We combined single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) with flow cytometry to delineate the immune cell atlas of cervical draining lymph nodes (CDLNs) of both young and old mice with or without experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). We found extensive and complicated changes in the cellular constituents of CDLNs during aging. When confronted with autoimmune challenges, old mice developed milder EAU compared to young mice. Within this EAU process, we highlighted that the pathogenicity of T helper 17 cells (Th17) was dampened, as shown by reduced GM-CSF secretion in old mice. The mitigated secretion of GM-CSF contributed to alleviation of IL-23 secretion by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and may, in turn, weaken APCs’ effects on facilitating the pathogenicity of Th17 cells. Meanwhile, our study further unveiled that aging downregulated GM-CSF secretion through reducing both the transcript and protein levels of IL-23R in Th17 cells from CDLNs. Overall, aging altered immune cell responses, especially through toning down Th17 cells, counteracting EAU challenge in old mice.
Structural and molecular basis for foot-and-mouth disease virus neutralization by two potent protective antibodies
Hu Dong, Pan Liu, Manyuan Bai, Kang Wang, Rui Feng, Dandan Zhu, Yao Sun, Suyu Mu, Haozhou Li, Michiel Harmsen, Shiqi Sun, Xiangxi Wang, Huichen Guo
2022, 13(6): 446-453. doi: 10.1007/s13238-021-00828-9
Low-dose chloroquine treatment extends the lifespan of aged rats
Wei Li, Zhiran Zou, Yusheng Cai, Kuan Yang, Si Wang, Zunpeng Liu, Lingling Geng, Qun Chu, Zhejun Ji, Piu Chan, Guang-Hui Liu, Moshi Song, Jing Qu, Weiqi Zhang
2022, 13(6): 454-461. doi: 10.1007/s13238-021-00903-1
Molecular basis and homeostatic regulation of Zinc taste
Rui Luo, Yuxiang Zhang, Yinjun Jia, Yan Zhang, Zongyang Li, Jieqing Zhao, Ting Liu, Wei Zhang
2022, 13(6): 462-469. doi: 10.1007/s13238-021-00845-8
Correction to: Nuclear m6A reader YTHDC1 regulates the scaffold function of LINE1 RNA in mouse ESCs and early embryos
Chuan Chen, Wenqiang Liu, Jiayin Guo, Yuanyuan Liu, Xuelian Liu, Jun Liu, Xiaoyang Dou, Rongrong Le, Yixin Huang, Chong Li, Lingyue Yang, Xiaochen Kou, Yanhong Zhao, You Wu, Jiayu Chen, Hong Wang, Bin Shen, Yawei Gao, Shaorong Gao
2022, 13(6): 470-471. doi: 10.1007/s13238-021-00853-8