Volume 4 Issue 2
Feb.  2013
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Neil Shaw, Songying Ouyang, Zhi-Jie Liu. Binding of bacterial secondary messenger molecule c di-GMP is a STING operation[J]. Protein&Cell, 2013, 4(2): 117-129. doi: 10.1007/s13238-012-2071-0
Citation: Neil Shaw, Songying Ouyang, Zhi-Jie Liu. Binding of bacterial secondary messenger molecule c di-GMP is a STING operation[J]. Protein&Cell, 2013, 4(2): 117-129. doi: 10.1007/s13238-012-2071-0

Binding of bacterial secondary messenger molecule c di-GMP is a STING operation

doi: 10.1007/s13238-012-2071-0
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31070660) and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2009DFB30310).

  • Received Date: 2012-07-30
  • Rev Recd Date: 2012-12-03
  • Initial skirmishes between the host and pathogen result in spillage of the contents of the bacterial cell. Amongst the spillage, the secondary messenger molecule, cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c di-GMP), was recently shown to be bound by stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Binding of c di-GMP by STING activates the Tank Binding Kinase (TBK1) mediated signaling cascades that galvanize the body's defenses for elimination of the pathogen. In addition to c di-GMP, STING has also been shown to function in innate immune responses against pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) originating from the DNA or RNA of pathogens. The pivotal role of STING in host defense is exemplified by the fact that STING-/- mice die upon infection by HSV-1. Thus, STING plays an essential role in innate immune responses against pathogens. This opens up an exciting possibility of targeting STING for development of adjuvant therapies to boost the immune defenses against invading microbes. Similarly, STING could be targeted for mitigating the inflammatory responses augmented by the innate immune system. This review summarizes and updates our current understanding of the role of STING in innate immune responses and discusses the future challenges in delineating the mechanism of STING-mediated responses.
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